RS422 is a balanced serial interface for the transmission of digital data. The advantage of a balanced signal is the greater immunity to noise. The EIA describes RS422 as a DTE to DCE interface for point-to-point connections.
37 pin D-SUB MALE connector at the DTE (Computer)
The interface is normally terminated on a 4 wire screw block or on a Sub-D37 (RS449), but other interfaces are not uncommon.
RS449 gets it"s blazing speed from the fact that, unlike RS232 which uses signals with reference to ground, it"s receivers look for the difference between two wires. Now the secret, by twisting these two wires any stray noise picked up on one wire will be picked up on the other, because both wires pick up the same noise the differential just shifts in voltage level with reference to ground, but does not change with respect to each other. Remember the receivers are only looking at the difference in voltage level of each wire to the other not to ground. This is what makes all the new wire interfaces work, V.35, RS530, 10baseT, etc.
The biggest problem faced is how the cables are made
The differential signals for RS449 are labeled as either "A and B" or "+ and -". In the case of RS449 wire A or + does not connect to B or -. Wire A always connects to A and B connects to B or + to + and - to -. If you do cross the wires you just inverted the data or clock in your interface. I have never seen any piece of equipment damaged from this, but they don"t work this way either.
37 pin D-SUB FEMALE connector at the DCE (Modem)
Note: Direction is DTE (Computer) relative DCE (Modem).
Источник: partially by technick.net